Horus, Lord of the Two Lands. N.K.

Horus, Lord of the Two Lands. N.K.
Period:Egypt, New Kingdom, New Kingdom
Dating:1570 BC–1200 BC
Origin:Egypt, Upper Egypt
Physical:22.1cm. (8.6 in.) - 705 g. (24.9 oz.)

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Links to others from New Kingdom

Bronze feather, horn and cobra, N. K.
Bronze of a king as Nefertem, N.K.
Bronze of a king as Orisiris, Dyn. 18-19
Bronze statuette of Apis, New Kingdom
Gilded cartonnage collar, New Kingdom
Hathor as a woman, cow headed, N.K.
King wearing the nemes, New Kingdom
Large amulet of Pataikos, Dyn. 20-21
Mummy foot casing, New Kingdom
Mummy foot casing, New Kingdom
Oxyrynchus sacred fish, New Kingdom
Scarab with God Khonsu, Dyn. 18
Shawabti in elaborate dress, 1340-1220 BC
Staff finial,Tefnut rearing up, Dyn. 20-21
Wooden statuette of Anubis, New Kingdom

Links to others representing Horus

Bronze Horus sarcophagus, Dyn.18
Falcon sarcophagus with Osiris mummy
Horus-the-Child, 1070-774 BC
Horus-the-Child, Alexandria, 100-30 BC
Horus-the-Child, Alexandria, 304-30 BC
Horus-the-Child as a ruling king, Dyn. 18
Horus-the-Child as Amun, 776-656 BC
Horus-the-Child, Dyn.19, 1300-1200 BC
Horus-the-Child, Dyn. 25, 776-656 BC
Horus-the-Child, heir to the king, Dyn. 26
Horus-the-child, Meroe, 590-300 BC
Horus-the-Child, Ptolemaic, 200-100 BC
Horus-the-Child, Ptolemaic, 304-30 BC
Horus-the-Child riding a swan, 304-31 BC
Pair of udjat eyes of Horus, Dyn. 18
Wood statuette of Horus stiding, Dyn. 11
Wooden sarcophagus lid, Dyn. 26

Links to others of type Statuette-animal

Bronze of Ibis-Thoth, 3rd Inter. Period
Bronze of Sakhmet seated, Dyn. 20-23
Bronze of Sakhmet seated, early Dyn. 18
Bronze Ra ensign, Early Dynastic
Bronze statuette of Apis, Dyn. 18
Bronze statuette of Apis, Late Period
Bronze statuette of Apis, New Kingdom
Bronze statuette of Bastet, Dyn. 22
Bronze statuette of Bastet, Dyn. 26
Bronze statuette of Sakhmet, Dyn. 20
Gilded bronze of Bastet, Dyn. 22
Ibis-headed Thoth with human body, Dyn.18
Oxyrynchus sacred fish, New Kingdom
Thoth as a baboon, stone, 2700-2500 BC
Unidentified king as Khnum, Dyn. 20
Wood statuette of Horus stiding, Dyn. 11
  This large bronze statuette from the New Kingdom (probably Dynasty 18) represents the falcon god, ‘lord of the sky’, elemental Horus, and primordial symbol of kingship. As ‘Lord of the Two Lands,’ he wears the double-crown of Upper and Lower Egypt. The level of craftsmanship exhibited not only in the general modeling, but also in the delicate engraving of the plumage is simply extraordinary.

This item was once part of Lord Talbot's collection.

The falcon god Horus embodies one of the most fundamental tenets of Egyptian religious and political beliefs. “According to the Turin Canon [a papyrus from the time of Ramses II], the late Predynastic rulers of Egypt were ‘followers of Horus’. By the time of the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt in 3000 BC, the ruler was Horus” (Hart 1986:89). Therefore unlike, say, medieval European kings, Egyptian kings were not ‘kings by the grace of God.’ They were not born as gods either. Instead, it is upon their enthronement that Egyptian kings became the embodiment on earth of the god Horus. They would remain the earthly manifestation of Horus throughout their lives, until the next king became inhabited by the god.

As central as he is to Egyptian thought, Horus often escapes our comprehension and frustrates our modern want for clear unique explanations of concepts. Egyptians were perhaps more comfortable than we are with some fifteen different manifestations of Horus (Horus the Elder, Horus the Child, Hariese, Harakhti, Horus of Behdet, Harmachis, Horus of Nekhen, Horus of Mesen, etc.), his various forms (falcon, falcon-headed man, sun disk, and child with a side lock of hair), and his ever changing filiation (son of Geb and Nut, or son of Hator, or son of Ra, or son of Isis and Osiris) (Armour 2001:71). Some of this confusion arises from geographical and temporal variations which have been flattened from our current vantage point. Yet, some of the complexity remains. “. . . at Edfu, Horus appears as the consort of Hathor and the father of another form of himself, Harsomtus” (Redford 2002:166).

Few Egyptian gods remained important in all periods, in all regions, and in all strata of society. Horus may be a rare exception. He was prominent at the birth of the nation, and was still prominent three thousand five hundred years later when the last Egyptian temple—the temple of Philae—was shut down by Justinian in 550 AD. In all his variations, Horus was not only present in both upper and lower Egypt, but could be claimed as a ‘local god’ in many places. More importantly, although Horus was the quintessential official god of the powerful, he was also a god close to ordinary Egyptians, as demonstrated by the popularity of ceppis (Horus the child standing over crocodiles) and Udjat eyes (the eye of Horus) as devices to ask the god for help warding off pain, disease, and fears.

“The iconography of Horus either influenced, or was appropriated, in early Christian art. Isis and the baby Horus may be seen as the precursor for Mary and the infant Jesus; Horus dominating the beasts may have a counterpart in Christ Pantokaor doing the same; and Horus spearing a serpent may survive in the iconography of Saint George defeating the dragon” (Redford 2002:167).

“As a cosmic deity Horus is imagined as a falcon whose wings are the sky and whose right eye is the sun and left eye the moon” (Hart 1986:94).

Bibliography (for this item)

Hart, George
1986 A Dictionary of Egyptian Gods and Goddesses. Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, United Kingdom. (87-88)

Khalil, Hassan M.
1976 Preliminary Studies on the Sanusret Collection. Manuscript, Musée l’Egypte et le Monde Antique, Monaco-Ville, Monaco. ([II] 73-75)

Tiradritti, Francesco
1998 Egyptian Treasures from the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. White Star Publishers, Vercelli, Italy. (38-39
30-31, 44)

Ziegler, Christiane
1997 The Louvre: Egyptian Antiquities (Reprint of 1990 edition). Edition Scala, Paris, France. (19)

Bibliography (on Horus)

Hart, George
1986 A Dictionary of Egyptian Gods and Goddesses. Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, United Kingdom. (94)

Redford, Donald B.
2002 The Ancient Gods Speak. Oxford University Press, New York, NY. (166)

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